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The following persons may claim support: a spouse, an ex-spouse, and parents of the first degree in direct line mother, father, and children of the deceased. Any sums granted as support are deducted from the succession before its partition. However, it must be noted that there are limits to the amounts that may be received from the succession as support. Example: Mark is divorced from Claire.

Les enfants et leur environnemnt familial au recensement de 1990

They had two children together, Mary and John. As part of the divorce judgment, the tribunal ordered Mark to pay an alimentary pension as support to Claire and the two children. After a few years, Mark remarries with Suzan; their son Albert is born. Still a few years later, Mark dies.

Le défunt laisse un conjoint survivant

Suzan and Albert also hold a claim for support against the succession. This concept aims to compensate for economical inequalities between the man and the woman in a marriage. Certain specific properties, owned by either or both spouses, constitute the family patrimony. Roughly summarized, this limitative list includes the following properties: the residences of the family, the movable property with which they are furnished and which serves for the use of the household, the motor vehicles used for family travel and the benefits accrued during the marriage under a retirement plan.

Both spouses retain an equal right to the net value of the family patrimony, irrespective of the actual ownership of the properties therein. The dispositions of the C. It must be noted that the family patrimony exists only within a marriage or a civil union, and thus does not apply to a couple in a common law relationship. This payment may be an award of a sum of money, payable in cash or by instalment, or an award of rights in certain property. The tribunal appraising the allowance to be paid takes into account the situation globally, including the partition of the family patrimony.

A claim to a compensatory allowance becomes prescribed one 1 year after the dissolution of the marriage or civil union. While the deceased had the full faculty to choose the manner in which his succession will devolve, certain legal principles govern to the partition process itself.

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These rules apply to all parties to the succession as well as all third parties, regardless of whether the deceased left a will or not. It is indeed the succession itself that is directly responsible for the debts. An heir has the free choice of accepting or refusing the succession. If he refuses, he is freed from any liability. In such a case, the descendants of that heir lose all rights in the succession. Any other outstanding fiscal debts of the succession are paid directly by the succession before partition, in the same fashion as debts of other natures; the heirs are not personally responsible for paying such taxes.

The limited liability of the heirs and the separate nature of patrimonies are important ground rules with significant consequences. If the assets are insufficient to cover the debts, the heir shall not be held personally accountable and could not be forced to pay these debts from his own patrimony. The separation of patrimonies is the corollary of that first ground rule: until such time as the succession has been liquidated, its patrimony and those of the heirs remain distinct. A person holding a potential right to inherit is designated a successor.


A successor is called upon to inherit, but may exercise his right of option: he may choose to accept or to renounce the succession. If he accepts, whether tacitly, expressly, or by law, the successor becomes an heir. Acceptation of a succession may not be revoked. Should he renounce the succession, he is deemed never to have been a successor. In certain cases, the C.

However, the creditors of a person renouncing the succession, to the detriment of their rights, have a remedy at their disposal. Within one 1 year of the renunciation, the creditors may apply to the court to declare that the renunciation may not be set up against them, and accept the succession in lieu of their debtor. In such a case, this acceptation has effect only in favour of the creditors who applied for it, and only up to the amount of their claim.

It has no effect in favour of the person who renounced. This principle allows a relative to be called to a succession which his ascendant would have taken but is unable to take himself, having deceased previously or having been declared unworthy. Example: John has two children, Carol and Stephen.

Stephen deceases some time before his father John, leaving his daughter Christine. The application of the principle of representation allows the descendant Christine to take the part of the succession that would have devolved to her ascendant Stephen if he had not died before John. There is no limit, in term of degree, to representation in the direct line of descent. Representation does not take place in favour of ascendants. However, a renunciation to the succession by a successor bars any possibility of representation for his descendants. A testator may also prevent representation for his heirs by an express stipulation to this effect in his will.

Autumn Snow 2: The Wildlands Hunt will have the following features:

As Paul had four 4 children, the succession is partitioned in four quarters. William and Mary share equally between themselves the part that would have devolved to the ascendant they represent, Sylvia. In this instance, representation has not been stopped for any descendant by a successor renouncing the succession. Indeed, when the heirs receive their inheritance, it is already net of taxes. The underlying fiscal interpretation is as follows: the deceased is deemed to have disposed of his property at the time of his death. Thus, the deceased shall be taxed on the capital gain realized following this fictive disposition of assets.

The liquidator is responsible for paying the income tax owed by the deceased. This constitutes an important responsibility, as the liquidator may be held personally liable for any outstanding fiscal debts. When the total worth of the succession is not very high, this process should be relatively straightforward. As a case in point, take the following example: The deceased held the shares to the family business.

11 mai 1987, Klaus Barbie était jugé pour crime contre l’humanité

Hallalel, J. Chevalier, S. Fau, F. Gold, S. Auteur correspondant. Outline Masquer le plan. She narrates what she experienced in a very detailed manner, yet she shows a certain difficulty in getting in touch with her emotional dimension and her painful experiences because she tries to maintain an image of herself as a strong, determined and positive woman.

As the psychological support continues, K. She is able to come to terms with her fragility and to accept slowly the deeper part of herself that is in need of support and care. She expresses profound sadness and suffering for having never felt support by her family, in particular by her father and brothers who have always had an attitude of contempt towards her and limited her strongly in her freedom and in her choices. The daughters both go to school, while she is learning Italian and volunteering in a kindergarten.

She is also a mother particularly devoted, affectionate and caring. Today, her greatest ambition, which has accumulated after years of suffering and oppression, is to work for the defense of women's rights. She has also been influenced thanks to the relationships built with other women who are guests at the House of Culture, who bring with them other dramatic and painful stories: "The freedom and respect of every human being is a fundamental and indispensable value and I want to fight for all the women in the world".

In June , she arrived at the Port of Pazzallo with her 2-year-old daughter. At the time of disembarkation, her family is taken into care by the Terre des Hommes team, followed by the vulnerability report implemented by the team of Doctors Without Borders, which reports her desire to terminate her pregnancy. From that moment the woman will be followed until her transfer to a structure in Sicily. The TDH team, immediately following the disembarkation, provides an emotional control aimed at comforting her, offering her listening and support.

Her daughter initially appears a bit 'scared and disoriented but later, becomes more relaxed, as she watches the psychologist make a drawing for her. On the same evening of the disembarkation, the woman is accompanied by the TDH mediator to the hospital for the usual routine checkups; during the ultrasound, she expresses again the wish to stop the pregnancy.


During the first interview in the Hotspot, the woman explains how she left her country of origin in and has spent about seven months in Libya with her daughter before being able to leave for Italy. Her husband has been in France for a couple of years and works occasionally as a tailor.

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They have three other children, who she left behind in Ivory Coast with their grandmother. During the meeting, F. During the interview, she reports that she cannot sleep at night and often think about what she had suffered, reiterating repeatedly that she does not want to keep the baby because it is the result of violence. She explains that her husband, who she has not yet had the courage to contact since she arrived in Italy, would never accept her being pregnant with the child of someone else.