30 Schriftbilder - Kalligrafie-Bilder-Buch 2 (Kalligrafie-Bilder-Bücher) (German Edition)

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His father, Isaac ben Mordecai, or Maestro Gaio, is known to have been friendly with the translator Hillel ben Samuel, while the latter was in Rome. He was also a poet. His commentary is based largely on the commentaries of Moses Maimonides — and on the renowned Greco-Roman medical author Galen of Pergamum second century CE.

Jahrhundert n. After the expulsion of the Jews from the Iberian peninsula at the end of the fifteenth century, the small city of Safed, Upper Galilee, soon became the new center of the kabbalistic movement; it was from there that Kabbalah conquered both the Jewish and non-Jewish worlds. One of the most important concepts among the kabbalists of Safed was that of mystical prayer. Tefillah le-Moshe contains kavvanot for weekdays and the Shabbat. Its text was published in Przemysl in , based in part, perhaps, on this manuscript.

The round Hebrew cursive, semi-cursive, and square scripts used in the manuscript are enhanced by a variety of pen-work foliage designs.

It is tempting to identify this copyist with the well-known writer Judah Aryeh Leone Modena — , who was at the height of his activity in At the bottom of a dedication page he signed his name: "The young Aryeh Judah Leib Sofer, son of the late Elhanan Katz, of blessed memory, who passed away on Friday, 28 Iyyar in the year [] in Jerusalem. Aryeh ben Judah Leib is the first recorded scribe to have written his manuscripts "with Amsterdam letters.

Aryeh ben Judah Leib transposed this custom to manuscripts.


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As a number of his manuscripts contain images that were printed on parchment, he may have been involved in the printing industry, although there was no Hebrew printing in Vienna at the time. On the basis of certain scribal features unique to him, this mohel book can be attributed to Aryeh ben Judah Leib with certainty.

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Its title page appropriately depicts a circumcision in a synagogue. The image inspired by the apocryphal book of Tobit on folio 2r, however, is highly unusual. It depicts Tobias, the son of Tobit, who is traveling with his guardian angel Raphael and a small dog. Although quite well known in Christian art, the inclusion of this theme in a Hebrew circumcision book, or even in a Jewish object of art, is unexpected.

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The idea that Raphael was the guardian angel of children, prevalent especially among Catholics, seems likely to have been borrowed as an apt symbol of filial protection for this circumcision book. It seems likely that Aryeh ben Judah Leib took this image from an unknown Christian, perhaps printed, source. Bemerkenswerterweise sind dabei auch Frauen anwesend. This combination of blessings and prayers was common during the eighteenth century. The inclusion of the three commandments incumbent upon women, hallah the obligation to separate dough , niddah the obligation to immerse in a ritual bath , and hadlakah the obligation to kindle Shabbat and Festival lights , indicates that the book was done for a woman, perhaps as a wedding present.

The manuscript contains an architectural title page with Moses and Aaron, twenty-two smaller, color illustrations for the various blessings, which often rely on Christian iconographic sources, and three decorated initial word panels. Seen here are seven miniatures belonging to the Birkhot ha-Nehenin : the blessing over spices alluded to by the image of a pharmacy , blessings upon seeing lightning, upon hearing thunder, upon seeing a rainbow, upon seeing a king, upon seeing different-looking people depicted here as a dark-skinned man and a dwarf , and upon seeing the ocean.

In Hebrew the name of the town appearing on the title page reads: Tzilem Adam , a name often used to refer to the eastern Austrian town of Deutschkreutz. Although the manuscript is not signed, it may be attributed to the well-known scribe-artist Aaron Wolf Herlingen see cat. This attribution rests on an analysis of certain scribal and artistic characteristics of this manuscript and on the similarity between this work and a number of signed manuscripts by him with similar content and decoration.

Von ihm sind insgesamt zehn Birkat ha-mason -Handschriften bekannt. Eine davon ist undatiert, die anderen entstanden zwischen und Besonders eindrucksvoll ist das Bild zu Beginn des ersten Psalms. He was born in the Moravian town of Trebitsch now Trebic, Czech Republic , where the first scribe of the eighteenth-century school, Aryeh ben Judah Leib, originated as well.

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Including the Braginksy psalter a total of seven manuscripts by Moses Judah Leib are known, produced between and The manuscript has an architectural title page with Moses and Aaron standing in arches. The psalms are subdivided according to the days of the week on which they are to be read and, with the exception of the psalms for Friday, these daily sections have decorated monochrome or multicolored initial word panels.

Following the first word of Psalms 1, ashre, on folio 6r, is a depiction of King David sitting outside on the terrace of a palace. He plays the harp while looking at an open volume, possibly his psalms. Moses Judah Leib was perhaps the most accomplished painter among his contemporaries. The binding of the manuscript has the emblem of the De Pinto family of Amsterdam tooled in gold on the front and back covers.

In the catalogue of the auction at which this manuscript was acquired for the Braginsky Collection, mention is made of a De Pinto family legend in which the artist was invited to Amsterdam to come and write the psalms for the family. This may indicate that one of the most accomplished eighteenth-century scribe-artists attracted an international clientele. The prohibition against work was lifted in Talmudic times; since then Rosh Hodesh has been considered a minor festival.

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At the end of the sixteenth century a custom developed among the mystics of Safed, in the Land of Israel, to fast on the day preceding Rosh Hodesh. A new liturgy was developed, based on penitential prayers for Yom Kippur. In the course of the seventeenth century the custom spread to Italy and on to Northern Europe.

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Manuscripts for Yom Kippur Katan , in vogue in the eighteenth century, included few illustrations. The Braginsky manuscript has only a baroque architectural title page with depictions of Moses and Aaron.

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The name of the owner was intended to be added to the empty shield at the top. No other manuscripts by him are known. The script in this manuscript is similar to that of the famous scribe-artist Aaron Wolf Herlingen of Gewitsch. Moreover, the title page is strongly reminiscent of his works. It is possible that Judah Leib bought an illustrated title page from Herlingen that was devoid of text. This would explain the presence of the empty shield and the fact that the title page is bound into the manuscript as a separate leaf.

Another explanation may be considered as well. If this is true, existing attributions of unsigned works to Herlingen based only on images that appear in the manuscripts should be carefully reconsidered, as this evidence may be insufficient. Seither gilt Rosch chodesch als sogenannter Halbfeiertag. Im It was the site of the rabbinic and scholarly activities of many great Jewish leaders, first and foremost among them Rashi. The scholarship and ancient traditions characteristic of the Jewish community in Worms are reflected in the minhagim customs that Juspa, the author of this volume, and others recorded and preserved.

These customs reflect Jewish life in the synagogue and the home throughout the entire year. Juspa was born in Fulda in and died in Worms in As shammes, Juspa served the Worms community in many capacities, including those of scribe, notary, trustee, mohel, and cantor. He was a talented writer and compiler; he paid special attention to the music of the synagogue and also composed poems.

In addition he authored Sefer Likkutei Yosef , displayed here. Previously in the Schocken Library in Jerusalem, this autograph manuscript contains later ownership entries, including testimony that the manuscript served as a pledge that was redeemed in by Rabbi Michael Scheyer. The original text includes commentaries on the prayer book, the Grace after Meals, the Passover Haggadah, and the Sayings of the Fathers, interspersed with records of prayer-related customs and autobiographical remarks.

The comments on minhagim were incorporated into the printed edition of the Wormser Minhagbuch , but the bulk of the manuscript remains unpublished. This carefully written codex therefore serves as a primary source for the religious history of one of the most significant Jewish communities in Europe. Paolo in Florence. After that library was sacked by Napoleonic forces, the manuscript may have been in the Vatican Library for a short while; the only source for this information is an English auction catalogue of in which the manuscript appeared.

It remained in England until it was acquired from the library of the bibliophile Beriah Botfield for the Braginsky Collection. Although the manuscript was bound into four volumes in England during the nineteenth century, the original consisted of two parts, each with its own colophon. The first part comprised the Pentateuch and the Hagiographa, while the second contained all the books of the Prophets.

At the end of the original first volume, now the second volume, he wrote a colophon with another year of completion, page This appears within a detailed interlaced frame with pen flourishes along the outer and part of the inner borders. He finished this part, however, in Evora, in the Kingdom of Portugal. With his fellow Jews Isaac had been expelled from Spain in and forced to flee to Portugal, where he copied the Pentateuch and Hagiographa. In the latter colophon the scribe even indicated that it had been two years since the expulsion from Castile. Whether he did indeed copy the manuscript in this unusual order, first Prophets, then Pentateuch and Hagiographa, or whether an original first part got lost as a result of the expulsion, necessitating its replacement, cannot be known.

According to tradition, the text of the Song of Moses, Ha'azinu Deuteronomy —43 page 74 , is ar- ranged as two columns composed of bricks placed one above the other. Paolo dei Carmelitani Scalzi in Florenz. Heightened awareness of calendars caused by this action, and the resultant feelings of superiority by Jews regarding their own, stimulated the production of separate books on the calculation of the Jewish calendar in the Ashkenazic world.

Sifrei Evronot , or Books of Intercalations, exist, among others, in illustrated Ashkenazic manuscripts of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The understanding of the relationship between the texts and images of these owes a great deal to a recent study on the topic by Elisheva Carlebach.

A common image in Sifrei Evronot manuscripts is that of a man on a ladder, or near it, who reaches to heaven to obtain the secrets of the calendar. His presence may be explained by I Chronicles , where reference is made to "the Issacharites, men who knew how to interpret the signs of the times.

His appearance in each is different, but in both he holds an hourglass in his hand and stands on a ladder that rests on an unusual structure that contains letters of the Hebrew alphabet between its columns. Whereas the text facing the first image refers to Issachar, that facing the second contains no mention of him or any other figure.

The first image incorporates another common element found in Sifrei Evronot illustrations, the moon with a human face, here, again, in two variant forms. The manuscript begins with a panel containing only the word tzivvah He [God] commanded.


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The page contains a portal, intended as a gateway to the celestial spheres, but which is also typical of the architectural motifs commonly used on title pages to signify a symbolic entry into the text. By writing on the construction of the calendar, scribes believed they fulfilled a religious commandment. In this manuscript, there are numerous other decorative elements, but only one additional illustration; it portrays Moses seated at a table holding the Tablets of the Law.